European trial dating
This work demonstrated methodically the relation of Germanic to Latin, Greek, Slavic, and Baltic.(Rask included Celtic a few years later.) In 1822 the second edition of the first volume of ‘I persuaded’).It presumably continues one of the very poorly attested ancient Indo-European languages of the Balkan Peninsula, but which one is not clear.In addition to the principal branches just listed, there are several poorly documented extinct languages of which enough is known to be sure that they were Indo-European and that they did not belong in any of the groups enumerated above (e.g., Phrygian, Macedonian).But in the 5th century Baltic-speaking area, however, contracted, and by the end of the 20th century Baltic languages were confined to Lithuania and Latvia.The earliest Slavic texts, written in a dialect called Old Church Slavonic, date from the 9th century .A blank indicates that the language in question does not use the item in accordance with the given meaning or that its word for that meaning is unknown. (The asterisk marks a form that is not actually found in any document or living dialect but is reconstructed as having once existed in the prehistory of the language.) The statable phonetic rules referred to earlier are not always obvious without careful observation.Note that the The ancient Greeks and Romans readily perceived that their languages were related to each other, and, as other European languages became objects of scholarly attention in the late Middle Ages and the Renaissance, many of these were seen to be more similar to Latin and Greek than, for example, to Hebrew or Hungarian.
As long as this view is neither definitively proved nor disproved, it is convenient to keep the traditional use of the term Indo-European.At the beginning of the Common Era, Baltic and Slavic tribes occupied a large area of eastern Europe, east of the Germanic tribes and north of the Iranians, including much of present-day Poland and the states of Belarus, Ukraine, and westernmost Russia.The Slavic area was in all likelihood relatively small, perhaps centred in what is now southern Poland.Since then the Indo-European family has been enlarged by the discovery of Tocharian languages and of Hittite and the other Anatolian languages and by the recognition, with the aid of Hittite, that Lycian, known and partly deciphered already in the 19th century, belongs to the Anatolian branch of Indo-European.The Indo-European character of Tocharian was announced by the German scholars Bedřich Hrozný published the first report of his own decipherment of the much more copious material that had meanwhile been found in the ruins of the Hittite capital itself.Iranian languages were spoken in the 1st millennium in present-day Iran and Afghanistan and also in the steppes to the north, from modern Hungary to East (Chinese) Turkistan (now Xinjiang).The only well-known ancient varieties of Iranian languages are Latin, originally the speech of the city of Rome and the ancestor of the modern Romance languages: Italian, Romanian, Spanish, Portuguese, French, and so on.Celtic languages were spoken in the last centuries before the Common Era (also called the Christian Era) over a wide area of Europe, from Spain and Britain to the Balkans, with one group (the Galatians) even in Asia Minor.Very little of the Celtic of that time and the ensuing centuries has survived, and this branch is known almost entirely from the Insular Celtic languages—Irish, Welsh, and others—spoken in and near the British Isles, as recorded from the 8th century The grouping of Baltic and Slavic into a single branch is somewhat controversial, but the exclusively shared features outweigh the divergences.The oldest Hittite texts date from the 17th century .Examples of modern Indo-Aryan languages are Hindi, Bengali, Sinhalese (spoken in Sri Lanka), and the many dialects of Romany, the language of the Roma.