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These languages became known to scholars only in the first decade of the 20th century.

They have been less important for Indo-European studies than Hittite has been, partly because their testimony about the Indo-European parent language is obscured by 2,000 more years of change and partly because Tocharian testimony fits fairly well with that of the previously known non-Anatolian languages.

Iranian languages were spoken in the 1st millennium in present-day Iran and Afghanistan and also in the steppes to the north, from modern Hungary to East (Chinese) Turkistan (now Xinjiang).

The only well-known ancient varieties of Iranian languages are Latin, originally the speech of the city of Rome and the ancestor of the modern Romance languages: Italian, Romanian, Spanish, Portuguese, French, and so on.

In addition, Grimm tried to find the principle behind the correspondences of Germanic stop and spirant consonants (the first made with complete stoppage of the breath, and the second made with constriction of the breath but not complete stoppage) to the consonants of other Indo-European languages.

The sound changes implied by these correspondences have become known as Heinrich Hübschmann, showed that Armenian was an independent branch of Indo-European, rather than a member of the Iranian subbranch.

There is a similar reason, though not quite so forcible, for supposing that both the (“On the System of Conjugation in Sanskrit, in Comparison with Those of Greek, Latin, Persian, and Germanic”), in which the relation of these five languages was demonstrated on the basis of a detailed comparison of verb morphology (structure).

Two years later there appeared the Rasmus Rask, completed in 1814.

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As long as this view is neither definitively proved nor disproved, it is convenient to keep the traditional use of the term Indo-European.

The earliest Latin inscriptions apparently date from the 6th century Kuchean).

One group of travel permits for caravans can be dated to the early 7th century, and it appears that other texts date from the same or from neighbouring centuries.

Especially important are the shared patterns of alternation of sounds.

Thus, the agreement of gives examples of typical vocabulary items widely shared within the Indo-European family that have been decisive in establishing the family.

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