Relative or absolute dating
It relies on a natural phenomenon that is the foundation of life on earth.
Indeed, carbon 14 (14C) is formed from the reaction caused by cosmic rays that convert nitrogen into carbon 14 and then carbon dioxide by combining with carbon 12 (12C) and carbon 13 (13C ), which are stable carbon isotopes.
In this case, even if the foundation of the building is found in the same stratigraphic level as the previous occupation, the two events are not contemporary.
Stratigraphic dating remains very reliable when it comes to dating objects or events in undisturbed stratigraphic levels.
These present many characteristics that are used for comparing them, such as morphology and raw materials in the case of stone tools, and decorative techniques and motifs in the case of ceramics.
Radiocarbon Dating Radiocarbon dating is the most widely used dating technique in archaeology.
Typology Typology is a method that compares reference objects in order to classify them according to their similarity or dissimilarity and link them to a specific context or period.A sample requires 10 to 20 grams of matter and usually consists of charred organic material, mainly charcoal, but bones (zooarchaeology) and shells can also be dated using this technique.An initial reading dates the specimen which is then calibrated by considering this date and its correspondence with the measurable level of carbon 14 stored over time in the growth rings of certain tree species, including redwood and pine bristol.The results of radiocarbon dating are expressed in years and include a time range (eg, 630± 60 BP).Subsequently, the calibration of that date provides a time interval where the event or object being dated can be situated (eg, 1275-1425 AD).Relative dating includes different techniques, but the most commonly used are soil stratigraphy analysis and typology.On the other hand, absolute dating includes all methods that provide figures about the real estimated age of archaeological objects or occupations.This method is based on the principle that the variation in tree growth from one year to another is influenced by the degree of precipitation, sunshine, temperature, soil type and all ambient conditions and that, consequently, reference patterns can be distinguished.Several sets of rings from different trees are matched to build an average sequence.These methods usually analyze physicochemical transformation phenomena whose rate are known or can be estimated relatively well.This is the only type of techniques that can help clarifying the actual age of an object.