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Welcome and thank you for visiting the Science of Tree Rings web pages, designed to be the ULTIMATE source for information on the science of Dendrochronology.

I've designed these pages to be easily understood by people at all levels of education, from elementary school students to high school students, from first grade teachers to college professors.

Bronk Ramsey’s team aimed to fill this gap by using sediment from bed of Lake Suigetsu, west of Tokyo.

Two distinct sediment layers have formed in the lake every summer and winter over tens of thousands of years.

Organisms capture a certain amount of carbon-14 from the atmosphere when they are alive.

By measuring the ratio of the radio isotope to non-radioactive carbon, the amount of carbon-14 decay can be worked out, thereby giving an age for the specimen in question.

The problem, says Bronk Ramsey, is that tree rings provide a direct record that only goes as far back as about 14,000 years.

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I paid for the Microsoft Expression Web Pro and Dreamweaver CS5 software, my Macbook Pro laptop (also running Windows 7 via VMware), my Dropbox Pro account, high-speed Internet and home wireless, wireless printer, and all the "hidden" overhead (paper, cartridges, electricity), even the extra server space needed for the many files! I'd like to keep these tree-ring web pages online for another 20 years! First, click on the "A to Z Index" button to the upper left for a comprehensive list of items available from these pages.You won't find the fancy Flash-driven pages here anymore — I want these pages to be readable, enjoyable, and (most of all) educational for all, especially those with learning and physical disabilities.My goal is to make available as much information about dendrochronology as I can possibly find on the Internet, from the basics of tree-ring dating, to reference and bibliographic information, to products and supplies, to books, and more!Carbon dating is used to work out the age of organic material — in effect, any living thing.The technique hinges on carbon-14, a radioactive isotope of the element that, unlike other more stable forms of carbon, decays away at a steady rate.Second, try searching for a particular keyword by using the Google search link at the bottom of this page or by clicking on Search Site in the top or bottom menus.A list of pages at this site will be provided with that keyword.My mission was born from an overwhelming need among dendrochronologists for a permanent repository of information that was free to the public, easily understandable, and as comprehensive as humanly possible.Come back and visit from time to time to learn more about new or updated software, new educational tools, new institutions conducting tree-ring research, new publications, and more!The more accurate carbon clock should yield better dates for any overlap of humans and Neanderthals, as well as for determining how climate changes influenced the extinction of Neanderthals.“If you have a better estimate of when the last Neanderthals lived to compare to climate records in Greenland or elsewhere, then you’ll have a better idea of whether the extinction was climate driven or competition with modern humans,” says Paula Reimer, a geochronologist at Queen’s University in Belfast, UK.

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